Tuesday, 31 October 2017

We have witnessed a huge change in cellular networks over the passage of time. There used to be an era when people had to wait for hours for performing very light tasks like downloading music or pictures. Then 3G hit the market of cell phone and we felt that this is the beginning of future. Now we have 4G that can download a movie within a few minutes.

Now what is it the maximum speed that we can get?

Of course the answer is, No. A new technology of 5th generation network is ready to hit the market which will have 10 to 20 times more speed than our existing 4G networks. 

Let us discuss 5G in brief.

What is 5G?

What is 5G
Picture courtesy of  Samsung Newsroom
5G technology is a lot different from the existing cellular networks in many ways.

Most of the wireless networks uses frequencies which are under 6 GHz. So the question here is that what is  so different with 5G? 

Well the most appropriate answer to this question is its frequency. Unlike other wireless technology that exist today, 5G will  use very specific frequency which will be beyong 30 GHz. 

There are both positives as well as negative aspects of using such a high frequency.

At first let us talk about the positives points. 

➥ High frequency range means more band width for every one.

➥ This will enable signal to focus  more on high traffic zone.

➥ High frequency waves or mm waves will make the network more faster.

Negative aspects of using high frequency waves. 

➥ The biggest obstacle in front of high frequency waves or mm waves is physical barriers. Actually higher is the frequency, greater is the signal loss when crossing different physical barriers like trees, walls, etc.

So there is a great risk of losing signal in crowded areas having lot of buildings.   

Scientists are still working on these bugs and hopefully we will witness 5G technology very soon.

Technology behind 5G network

Currently there are five different technology emerging as the foundation of 5G.

➥ Millimeter waves.

➥ Small cells.

➥ Massive MIMO.

➥ Beam forming.

➥ Full Duplex.

1. Millimeter waves.

We have already discussed that 5G uses very high frequency waves which means the wavelength will be very shorter (up to several millimeters).

On one side, this will trigger the speed of internet very swiftly but on the other side it will face huge signal loss.

To overcome this problem, there is another technology in the form of small cells.

2. Small cells.

Millimeter waves face great problem which passing through obstacles (trees, buildings). To overcome this problem, we will be using small cells which is a kind of very base stations which can be placed anywhere easily (even on roof tops).

So this will amplify the signal at every single step and thus it will prevent the loss of signal.  

3. Massive MIMO

MIMO stands for Multiple Input Multiple Output.

Existing base stations have around dozens of ports to handle cellular traffic. But Massive MIMO base station will support about hundreds of ports. This will directly increase the capacity of 5G network.

4. Beamforming

Beamforming is like traffic monitoring system for cellular networks. It will allow base stations to send focused signal to users instead of broadcasting it in every direction. 

5. Full Duplex.

Today’s base stations can manage only one task at a time. They can either transmit or receive. With the help of Full Duplex technology, researchers have succeeded in preventing base station from acting like a one way traffic system.

This technology is actually based on the principle of reciprocity.   

There are some of the technology around which our 5G system is currently revolving around. There are lot of thing that are yet to be done.

Researchers are working with great enthusiasm for 5G and if everything goes fine, we will be able to feel the heat of 5G till 2019.   

Picture courtesy of  Clker

Still left with any confusion fell?
Fell free to comment bellow.


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